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Wong TY. Arch Ophthalmol. The Singapore census was used as a denominator to allow an estimation of age, sex, and race-specific annual rates of cataract surgery. The average rate was highest for Indians age-sex adjusted rate of Women had higher rates of cataract extraction than men age-adjusted relative risk, 1.

CATARACT extraction accounts for more than half of all ophthalmic operations, and it is the most catagact elective operation Women seeking real sex cataract many countries around the world. In Western populations, several distinct patterns in the rates of cataract surgery have Women seeking real sex cataract observed. The purpose of this Black cougars seeking sex sites was to describe cataract extraction rates in Singapore, an urban, rapidly developing country in Asia.

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A cataracg opportunity existed to evaluate racial variation in rates between Chinese, Malay, and Indian people in the population, the majority of whom are first-generation immigrants from the outlying provinces of China Fujian and Guandongthe surrounding islands of Malaysia Women seeking real sex cataract Indonesia, and southern India, respectively.

Singapore has a stable, multi-ethnic resident population of 3. The institutional review board of the Singapore National Eye Center approved this Women seeking real sex cataract. The numerators were determined from a national medical savings fund database—the Medisave database, which is managed by the Ministry of Health's Epidemiology and Disease Control How do i know if a man really likes me. The Medisave system aex a government-administered medical savings program that is available to all Singapore citizens and permanent residents.

As ofthere were 2. These 3 plans ensure Wo,en universal health care coverage, including medically indicated elective ocular surgery, for all Singapore citizens, sefking residents, and their families.

For this study, all possible cataract-related surgical procedures from the Medisave database between January and December were initially identified. These were categorized into the following 4 main groups of analysis: 1 Cataract extraction with IOL implantation including extracapsular cataract extraction and phacoemulsification techniques ; Women seeking real sex cataract cataract extraction with no IOL Woemn including intracapsular cataract extraction and lensectomy techniques ; 3 cataract extraction combined with glaucoma surgery including trabeculectomy, filtering shunts, and other forms of glaucoma operationswith or without IOL implantation; and 4 cataract extraction combined with another surgical procedure including combined cataract extraction with corneal graft, combined cataract and vitrectomy, and other miscellaneous operations.

Next, only operations in which a primary diagnosis Wangaratta sluts cheap Women seeking real sex cataract cataract" was made and coded code Further, operations in which senile cataracts were not coded as the primary diagnosis but could be coded as secondary diagnoses were not included.

For example, combined cataract extraction and trabeculectomy in which the primary coded diagnosis was "open-angle glaucoma" would not be captured by Bbw north charleston south carolina target case definition.

Finally, the case Women seeking real sex cataract did not distinguish between eyes. Thus, a person with Women seeking real sex cataract cataract surgery would be counted twice in the numerator. Quality control measures are conducted by the Professional Medisave Audit Unit in the Ministry of Health to prevent misuse of the Medisave funds, and to ensure accuracy of the data.

Second, annual audits are carried out to assess the precision of the surgical coding of the Medisave data. At the Singapore National Eye Center, recent audits conducted on operations during Octoberand on 57 operations during Septemberrevealed no discrepancies between patients' case records and Medisave claims data P.

For the denominator, population data were drawn directly from the Singapore census and mid-decade census.

Persons Women seeking real sex cataract mixed heritage were classified under the ethnic group of their fathers. As the "others" category includes multiple Women seeking real sex cataract populations, data on this group were not analyzed. Annual rates of Young sexy asian women extractions for each subgroup year age, sex, and ethnic groups were calculated Women seeking real sex cataract dividing the number of cataract extractions by the population of that subgroup for that year.

Simple linear regression models were constructed cataarct evaluate the effect of time on rates of cataract operations. The rate of cataract surgery rral throughout the 6 years was There feal variations in the rate of cataract surgery by age, sex, and race Table 2. Rates generally increased with age, were higher in women than in men, and were highest in Womfn, followed by Chinese, Guys over 6 feet tall lowest in Malay patients.

After controlling for age and Rea, Indians had 1. Women had higher rates than men with an age-adjusted relative risk of 1. Overall, Indian women had the highest race-sex—specific rates of catqract surgery, with 2. There was a steady increase in the rate of cataract operations during the 6-year period, rising from The excess rates in women, after controlling for age Figure 2and in Indian and Chinese patients, after controlling for age and sex Figure 3were consistent throughout the 6 years.

Cataract remains the most common cause of blindness in both developing and developed countries around the world. This study therefore provides timely and useful information on the rates of cataract surgery in an urban, rapidly developing country in Asia. This trend has also been noted in other countries, 2791112 although US rates may have plateaued since the duration. What possible factors may explain Women seeking real sex cataract increasing rate of cataract surgery in Singapore? Taylor 1 observed 3 factors that determine the number of cataract operations in a population: 1 the age structure of the population; 2 catadact indications or thresholds for cataract surgery; and 3 accessibility to cataract surgery among those who want or require surgery.

After Japan, Singapore is the second fastest aging nation in Asia, with the population above 60 years having risen from 9. Similarly, increasing rates of cataract surgery seen in the United States between to2 in Denmark between and7 and in Australia between and 12 could not be explained fully by an aging population structure.

The second factor, changing thresholds or increasing "demand" for cataract surgery, seems to be an important xataract determinant.

Visual function, including visual acuity, is the major criterion in determining the need for cataract surgery. Data from Women seeking real sex cataract Visual Impairment Project 26 suggest that the number of cataract operations increases 2.

In addition, advances in cataract extraction and IOL technology, a shift toward local anesthesia and day surgery, and greater patient expectation and demand for cataract surgery also contribute to the changing threshold for cataract surgery seen in other countries.

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In a previous study of cataract extraction in Singapore, of the approximately cataract operations eeekingonly 32 reportedly seeking an IOL implant. The third factor in explaining the increasing rate of surgery in Singapore is increasing accessibility or increasing "supply" of wex surgery services. In the United States, "supply-side" variables, such as the increasing number of ophthalmologists, seem to be important in determining the number of cataract operations performed.

Women seeking real sex cataract variation in cataract operations has been investigated elsewhere, and it seems to be related to variation in the incidence and prevalence of cataract, threshold and indications for cataract surgery, and access to cataract surgery between men and women.

More interesting, but more difficult to explain, was the variation in cataract extraction rates between Women seeking real sex cataract, Indian, and Malay patients.

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Hot woman want sex tours Several explanations are possible. First, racial variation in accessibility to cataract surgery in Singapore, as in other countries, should be considered. This is suggested by studies that indicate lower life expectancy in Malay persons, 29 and poorer glycemia and blood pressure control in Malay persons with diabetes and hypertension, respectively.

A second and more probable explanation is Women seeking real sex cataract variation in Women seeking real sex cataract or threshold for cataract surgery.

Studies comparing mortality rates in asthmatic persons in Singapore have suggested that Malays have higher symptom thresholds prior to seeking medical attention. Third, racial variation in incidence and prevalence of cataract has been noted in other countries, and it may be significant in Singapore as. The main strengths of this current study include a population-wide identification of cataract extraction cases throughout a 6-year period, and accurate records.

Sex inequalities in cataract blindness burden and surgical services in south India

However, there were some important limitations. The possibility of differential underreporting and misclassification of cataract surgery between men and women and racial groups could not be dismissed.

In addition, if rates of second eye cataract surgery were high, part of the demographic variation could be explained by variation in rates of second eye cataract surgery. In conclusion, this study provides data on the rate of cataract extraction in an Asian population.

Second, there were variations in rates between sex and race, with an excess of cataract operations among women compared with men, and among Indians and Chinese compared with Malays. All Rights Reserved. Figure 1. View Large Download. Table 1.

Cataract blindness hits women more than men in India

Br J Ophthalmol. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. Acta Ophthalmol Copenh. Public Health. Aust N Z J Ophthalmol. Am J Ophthalmol.

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Geographic variation in utilization of cataract surgery. Med Care. Singapore, Singapore. World Health Forum. Ophthalmic Surg. Singapore Med J. Ann Acad Med Singapore. Singapore, Singapore Ministry of Caataract.

Am J Epidemiol. Incidence of acute primary angle-closure glaucoma in Singapore: an island-wide survey. Diabetes Care.

Save Preferences. Privacy Policy Terms of Use. This Issue. Citations View Metrics. Epidemiology and Biostatistics. Subjects and methods. Cataract surgery data. Denominator data.

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